Onyms

Words ending in "-onym" are often used to describe different classes of words, and the relationships between words. The "-onym" literally means 'name', from the Greek onoma meaning 'name' or 'word'.


AcronymAn abbreviation formed from the initial letters of a series of words and pronounced as one word; e.g. radar from radio detection and ranging
Allonym1 An assumed name
2 The name of another person, especially that of a significant historical figure, assumed by somebody, especially a writer
AnacronymAn acronym that is so well-established that its origin is no longer remembered
AnanymA name written backwards and used as a pseudonym; e.g. Rellim is a ananym of Miller
AnatonymA word that refers to a part of the body and which is used as a verb; e.g. 'to toe the line'; 'to face the music'; to eye the target'
AnonymAnother word for pseudonym
AntagonymA single word that has meanings that contradict each other; e.g. bad for good
AnthroponymA person's name, especially a surname
AntonymEither of a pair of words that have opposite (or near-opposite) meanings; e.g. wet and dry
ApostonymA word that becomes a different word when an apostrophe is removed from it; e.g. can't - cant; he'll - hell; she'll - shell
AptronymA person's name that matches its owner's occupation or character (either in fiction or reality), often in a humorous or ironic way; e.g. Arctic explorer Will Snow
AristonymA surname used as, or derived from, a formal title of nobility or a high rank; e.g. Thomas Harold Andre Le Duc
AutoantonymAnother word for contronym
Autonym1 A word that describes itself; e.g. noun is a noun
2 A person's real name; the opposite of pseudonym
3 A name by which a social group or race refers to itself
BacronymAnother word for backronym
BackronymThe reverse of producing an acronym; taking a word that already exists and creating a phrase (often humorous) using the letters of the word as initials; e.g. Guaranteed Overnight Delivery (GOD)
BasonymThe earliest validly published name of a taxon, being in the case of a binomial or trinomial the source of the valid specific or subspecific epithet when the taxon is transferred to a new combination and in technical usage always accompanied by the name of the original author; e.g. Crataegus spicata Lamark; Amelanchier spicata
Caconym1 A word that is wrongly applied
2 A misnomer
3 The incorrect name for something, especially in the classification of plants, etc.
CapitonymA word that changes its meaning and pronunciation when capitalised; e.g. polish and Polish
CharactonymThe name of a fictional character that is especially suited to his or her personality; e.g. Scrooge for a miserly person; Sherlock Holmes for a detective
ChironymA manuscript named for a species, having no taxonomic validity until published
CohyponymA word that is one of multiple hyponyms of another word
ConsonymOn of two (or more) words that have the same pattern of consonants; e.g. eTHNiC - THeNCe; SPoNGe - eSPioNaGe
ContranymAnother word for contronym
ContronymA word that can take two (or more) opposite meanings; e.g. fast means 'moving quickly' or 'fixed firmly in place'
Cryptonym1 A code name
2 A word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word
DemonymA name of persons/people that refers to the place they come from; e.g. a Cypriot is a person from Cyprus; a Roman from Rome
DesynonymA word that was previously synonymous with another but is now different; e.g. bishop/presbyter
DionymA name containing two parts or terms
DomunymAnother word for demonym
EponymA name or word derived from the name of a real or fictional person; e.g. sandwich from the Earl of Sandwich
EthonymThe name of a people or ethnic group; e.g. Albanians
Euonym1 A word well suited to a person, place or thing so named
2 A pleasant or beautiful name
EuphonymA euphonious synonym
ExonymA place name used by foreigners that differs from the name used by its natives; e.g. Londres is the French exonym for London
FilionymA name derived from that of a son
GenonymA botanical genus name
HeteronymOne of two (or more) words that have the same spelling, but different sounds and meanings; e.g. bow of a ship and bow and arrow
HiernymA surname based on a sacred name; e.g. St. John
HolonymA word for the whole and of which other words are part; e.g. house contains roof, door and window; car comprises steering-wheel and engine
HomonymOne of two (or more) words that are pronounced and spelt the same, but have different meanings; e.g. bat, the mammal, and bat, the club
HydronymA name for a body of water; e.g. River Thames; Lake Superior
HypernymAnother word for hyperonym
HyperonymA word of general meaning applicable to more specific, related words; a superordinate; e.g. in the relationship between horse and animal, animal is a hypernym; between chair and furniture, furniture is a hypernym
HyponymA word of more specific meaning than, and therefore implying or able to be replaced by, another more general or superordinate term; e.g. in the relationship between horse and animal, horse is a hyponym; between chair and furniture, chair is a hyponym
Isonym1 A word that is spelt the same as another but sounds differently
2 A word of the same derivation as another and therefore a cognate of that word
Malonym1 A metaphor, clich, or popular expression mangled by the use of an incorrect word; e.g. 'Look before you leak' might have been the motto of the Titanic's captain
2 An ill-considered offering by a spell checker
MatronymAnother word for metronym
MeronymA word that names a part that belongs to and is therefore subordinate to a larger entity; e.g. door or window in house; ankle in leg; brim in hat
MetanymA generic name rejected because based on a type species congeneric with the type of a previously published genus
MetonymA figure of speech consisting of the use of the name of one thing for that of another of which it is an attribute or with which it is associated; e.g. the press referring to journalists; the Crown referring to the monarchy
MetronymA name derived from the name of one's mother, or another female ancestor
MononymA term consisting of one word only
MorphonymA zoological species name
NeuronymA name of a nerve or part of the nervous system
OnymA proposed term or a technical name, as of a species or other group in zoology, etc., forming part of a recognised nomenclature
OrganonymThe technical name of an organ
OronymA string of words that sounds the same, but is spelled differently from another string of words; e.g. ice cream and I scream; mint spy and mince pie
PaedonymA name derived from one's child; e.g. Althea Meleagris, mother of Meleager
ParanymA word whose meaning is altered to conceal evasion
ParonymA word that is related to another word and derives from the same root; e.g. beautiful and beauteous; dubious and doubtful
PatronymA name derived from the name of one's father, or another male ancestor; e.g. John's son - Johnson; MacDonald - son of Donald
PhytonymThe name of a plant;e.g. rosebush
PoecilonymOne of various names for the same thing; a synonym
PolyonymA name consisting of several words
PolypseudonymHaving many pseudonyms
ProtonymThe first person or thing of the name; that from which another is named
PseudoantonymA word that appears to mean the opposite of what it actually means; e.g. unloosen; inflammable; ingenious; despoil
PseudoeponymA name eroneously given to the year
PseudonymAn assumed name; pen name; nom de plume; e.g. George Orwell was the pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair
RetronymAn adjective-noun pairing generated by a change in the meaning of the base noun, usually as a result of technological advance; e.g. watch that existed on its own originally and then had a preceding analog added to it, in order to differentiate it from a digital watch
SideronymA pseudonym consisting of the name of a celestial body; e.g. Madam Altaira
SynonymOn of two (or more) words that have the same (or very similar) meaning; e.g. big and large; error and mistake; run and sprint
Tautonym1 A word composed of two identical parts; e.g. pawpaw; yoyo; tutu; bye-bye
2 In biological momenclature, a taxonomic name in which the genus and species names are identical; e.g. puffinus puffinus (manx shearwater); apus appus (common swift)
Teknonym1 The practice among certain primitve peoples of giving to the parent the name of the child
2 Naming a thing by substituting one of its attributes or a term it suggests; e.g. Chief Sitting Bull
TetronymA name consisting of four parts
Toponym1 A place name; e.g. London; Mount Everest
2 A word derived from a place name; e.g. champagne from Champagne in France; cashmere from Kashmir in India
Trionym1 A name consisting of three terms
2 A trinomial name in boatny or zoology
TroponymA verb that indicates more precisely the manner of doing something by its replacing a verb of a more genaralised meaning; e.g. the verb to stroll indicates a more leisurely, casual manner of to walk
TyponymA taxonomic name based on a type of specimen instead of a diagnosis

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