Irregular Verbs

Verbs are subdivided into two groups, regular verbs and irregular verbs, on the basis of how their past tenses and past participles are formed. Most verbs are regular verbs, that is, their past tenses and past participles are formed by adding a -d or an -ed to the end of their base form, for example, roll and rolled. Sometimes the last consonant must be doubled before adding the -ed ending, as in, plan and planned. So far, so good.

However, English being the contrary language that it is, there are also many irregular verbs and there is no formula to predict how such a verb will form its past tense and past participle states. Some do not change at all, others change completely, while others change letters in the middle. It's no wonder the student of English sometimes gets confused. To make things a little easier, below is a list over over 300 of these irregular verbs.


InfinitivePast SimplePast Participle3rd Person SingularPresent Participle/
Gerund
AbideAbode/AbidedAbode/Abided/AbiddenAbidesAbiding
AriseAroseArisenArisesArising
AwakeAwoke/Awaked/AwakenedAwoke/Awoken/AwakedAwakesAwaking
BeWas/WereBeenIsBeing
BearBoreBorn/BorneBearsBearing
BeatBeatBeaten/BeatBeatsBeating
BecomeBecameBecomeBecomesBecoming
BefallBefellBefallenBefallsBefalling
BegetBegot/BegatBegottenBegetsBegetting
BeginBeganBegunBeginsBeginning
BeholdBeheldBeheldBeholdsBeholding
BendBentBentBendsBending
BereaveBereftBereft/BereavedBereavesBereaving
BeseechBesoughtBesoughtBeseechesBeseeching
BesetBesetBesetBesetsBesetting
BespeakBespokeBespokenBespeaksBespeaking
BestrideBestrodeBestriddenBestridesBestriding
BetBet/BettedBet/BettedBetsBetting
BetakeBetookBetakenBetakesBetaking
BethinkBethoughtBethoughtBethinksBethinking
Bid (at auction)BidBidBidsBidding
Bid (greet)Bade/BidBidden/BidBidsBidding
BideBode/BidedBidedBidesBiding
BindBoundBoundBindsBinding
BiteBitBittenBitesBiting
BleedBledBledBleedsBleeding
BlowBlewBlownBlowsBlowing
BreakBrokeBrokenBreaksBreaking
BreastfeedBreastfedBreastfedBreastfeedsBreastfeeding
BreedBredBredBreedsBreeding
BringBroughtBroughtBringsBringing
BroadcastBroadcast/BroadcastedBroadcast/BroadcastedBroadcastsBroadcasting
BrowbeatBrowbeatBrowbeat/BrowbeatenBrowbeatsBrowbeating
BuildBuiltBuiltBuildsBuilding
BurnBurnt/BurnedBurnt/BurnedBurnsBurning
BurstBurstBurstBurstsBursting
BustBusted/BustBusted/BustBustsBusting
BuyBoughtBoughtBuysBuying
CastCastCastCastsCasting
CatchCaughtCaughtCatchesCatching
ChideChidChidden/ChidChidesChiding
ChooseChoseChosenChoosesChoosing
CleaveClove/CleftCloven/CleftCleavesCleaving
ClingClungClungClingsClinging
ClotheClad/ClothedClad/ClothedClothesClothing
ComeCameComeComesComing
CostCost/CostedCost/CostedCostsCosting
CreepCreptCreptCreepsCreeping
CutCutCutCutsCutting
DareDared/DurstDaredDaresDaring
DealDealtDealtDealsDealing
DigDugDugDigsDigging
DiveDived (US Dove)DivedDivesDiving
DoDidDoneDoesDoing
DrawDrewDrawnDrawsDrawing
DreamDreamt/DreamedDreamt/DreamedDreamsDreaming
DrinkDrankDrunkDrinksDrinking
DriveDroveDrivenDrivesDrives
DwellDwelt/DwelledDwelt/DwelledDwellsDwelling
EatAteEatenEatsEating
FallFellFallenFallsFalling
FeedFedFedFeedsFeeding
FeelFeltFeltFeelsFeeling
FightFoughtFoughtFightsFighting
FindFoundFoundFindsFinding
FitFit/FittedFit/FittedFitsFitting
FleeFledFledFleesFleeing
FlingFlungFlungFlingsFlinging
FloodlightFloodlitFloodlitFloodlightsFloodlighting
FlyFlewFlownFliesFlying
ForbearForeboreForborneForbearsForbearing
ForbidForbade/ForbadForbiddenForbidsForbidding
ForecastForecast/ForecastedForecast/ForecastedForecastForecasting
ForegoForewentForegoneForegoesForegoing
ForeknowForeknewForeknownForeknowsForeknowing
ForerunForeranForerunForerunsForerunning
ForeseeForesawForeseenForeseesForeseeing
ForetellForetoldForetoldForetellsForetelling
ForgetForgotForgottenForgetsForgetting
ForgiveForgaveForgivenForgivesForgiving
ForsakeForsookForsakenForsakesForsaking
ForswearForsworeForswornForswearsForswearing
FreezeFrozeFrozenFreezesFreezing
GainsayGainsaidGainsaidGainsaysGainsaying
GetGotGot (US Gotten)GetsGetting
GildGilded/GiltGilded/GiltGildsGilding
GirdGirded/GirtGirded/GirtGirdsGirding
GiveGaveGivenGivesGiving
GoWentGoneGoesGoing
GraveGravedGravenGravesGraving
GrindGroundGroundGrindsGrinding
GrowGrewGrownGrowsGrowing
HamstringHamstrung/HamstringedHamstrung/HamstringedHamstringsHamstringing
HangHung/HangedHung/HangedHangsHanging
HaveHadHadHasHaving
HearHeardHeardHearsHearing
HeaveHeaved/HoveHeaved/HoveHeavesHeaving
HewHewedHewnHewsHewing
HideHidHiddenHidesHiding
HitHitHitHitsHitting
HoldHeldHeldHoldsHolding
HousebreakHousebrokeHousebrokenHousebreaksHousebreaking
HurtHurtHurtHurtsHurting
InbreedInbredInbredInbreedsInbreeding
InlayInlaidInlaidInlaysInlaying
InputInput/InputtedInput/InputtedInputsInputting
InsetInsetInsetInsetsInsetting
InterbreedInterbredInterbredInterbreedsInterbreeding
InterlayInterlaidInterlaidInterlaysInterlaying
InterweaveInterwoveInterwovenInterweavesInterweaving
KeepKeptKeptKeepsKeeping
KneelKnelt/KneeledKnelt/KneeledKneelsKneeling
KnitKnit/KnittedKnit/KnittedKnitsKnitting
KnowKnewKnownKnowsKnowing
LadeLadedLaden/LadedLadesLading
LayLaidLaidLaysLaying
LeadLedLedLeadsLeading
LeanLeaned/LeantLeaned/LeantLeansLeaning
LeapLeaped/LeaptLeaped/LeaptLeapsLeaping
LearnLearnt/LearnedLearnt/LearnedLearnsLearning
LeaveLeftLeftLeavesLeaving
LendLentLentLendsLending
LetLetLetLetsLetting
Lie (place oneself horizontally)LayLainLiesLying
Lie (tell an untruth)LiedLiedLiesLying
LightLit/LightedLit/LightedLightsLighting
LoseLostLostLosesLosing
MakeMadeMadeMakesMaking
MeanMeantMeantMeansMeaning
MeetMetMetMeetsMeeting
MeltMeltedMelted/MoltenMeltsMelting
MiscastMiscastMiscastMiscastsMiscasting
MisdealMisdealtMisdealtMisdealsMisdealing
MisgiveMisgaveMisgivenMisgivesMisgiving
MishearMisheardMisheardMishearsMishearing
MislayMislaidMislaidMislaysMislaying
MisleadMisledMisledMisleadsMisleading
MisreadMisreadMisreadMisreadsMisreading
MisspellMisspelt/MisspelledMisspelt/MisspelledMisspellsMisspelling
MisspendMisspentMisspentMisspendsMisspending
MistakeMistookMistakenMistakesMistaking
MisunderstandMisunderstoodMisunderstoodMisunderstandsMisunderstanding
MowMowedMown (US Mowed)MowsMowing
OutbidOutbidOutbidOutbidsOutbidding
OutdoOutdidOutdoneOutdoesOutdoing
OutgrowOutgrewOutgrownOutgrowsOutgrowing
OutrideOutrodeOutriddenOutridesOutriding
OutrunOutranOutrunOutrunsOutrunning
OutsellOutsoldOutsoldOutsellsOutselling
OutshineOutshoneOutshoneOutshinesOutshining
OverbearOverboreOberborneOverbearsOverbearing
OvercastOvercastOvercastOvercastsOvercasting
OvercomeOvercameOvercomeOvercomesOvercoming
OverdoOverdidOverdoneOverdoesOverdoing
OverdrawOverdrewOverdrawnOverdrawsOverdrawing
OvereatOverateOvereatenOvereatsOvereating
OverhangOverhungOverhungOverhangsOverhanging
OverhearOverheardOverheardOverhearsOverhearing
OverlayOverlaidOverlaidOverlaysOverlaying
OverleapOverleapt/OverleapedOverleapt/OverleapedOverleapsOverleaping
OverlieOverlayOverlainOverliesOverlying
OverpayOverpaidOverpaidOverpaysOverpaying
OverrideOverrodeOverriddenOverridesOverriding
OverrunOverranOverriddenOverrunsOverrunning
OverseeOversawOverseenOverseesOverseeing
OversellOversoldOversoldOversellsOverselling
OvershootOvershotOvershotOvershootsOvershooting
OversleepOversleptOversleptOversleepsOversleeping
OvertakeOvertookOvertakenOvertakesOvertaking
OverthrowOverthrewOverthrownOverthrowsOverthrowing
PartakePartookPartakenPartakesPartaking
PayPaidPaidPaysPaying
Pen (write)PennedPennedPensPenning
Pen (enclose)Penned/PentPenned/PentPensPenning
PleadPleaded/PledPleaded/PledPleadsPleading
PresetPresetPresetPresetsPresetting
ProofreadProofreadProofreadProofreadsProofreading
ProveProvedProved (US Proven)ProvesProving
PutPutPutPutsPutting
QuitQuit/QuittedQuit/QuittedQuitsQuitting
ReadReadReadReadsReading
RebindReboundReboundRebindsRebinding
RebuildRebuiltRebuiltRebuildsRebuilding
RecastRecastRecastRecastsRecasting
RedoRedidRedoneRedoesRedoing
RelayRelaidRelaidRelaysRelaying
RemakeRemadeRemadeRemakesRemaking
RendRentRentRentsRenting
RepayRepaidRepaidRepaysRepaying
RerunReranRerunRerunsRerunning
ResellResoldResoldResellsReselling
ResetResetResetResetsResetting
RetellRetoldRetoldRetellsRetelling
RethinkRethoughtRethoughtRethinksRethinking
RewindRewoundRewoundRewindsRewinding
RewriteRewroteRewrittenRewritesRewriting
RidRid/RiddedRid/RiddedRidsRidding
RideRodeRiddenRidesRiding
RingRangRungRingsRinging
RiseRoseRisenRisesRising
RiveRivedRiven/RivedRivesRiving
RunRanRunRunsRunning
SawSawedSawed/SawnSawsSawing
SaySaidSaidSaysSaying
SeeSawSeenSeesSeeing
SeekSoughtSoughtSeeksSeeking
SellSoldSoldSellsSelling
SendSentSentSendsSending
SetSetSetSetsSetting
SewSewedSewed/SewnSewsSewing
ShakeShookShakenShakesShaking
ShaveShavedShaved/ShavenShavesShaving
ShearSheared/ShoreSheared/ShornShearsShearing
ShedShedShedShedsShedding
ShineShone/ShinedShone/ShinedShinesShining
ShitShit/ShatShit/ShatShitsShitting
ShoeShodShodShoesShoeing
ShootShotShotShootsShooting
ShowShowedShownShowsShowing
ShrinkShrank (US Shrunk)Shrunk (US Shrunken|)ShrinksShrinking
ShriveShroveShrivenShrivesShriving
ShutShutShutShutsShutting
SingSangSungSingsSinging
SinkSankSunkSinksSinking
SitSatSatSitsSitting
SlaySlewSlainSlaysSlaying
SleepSleptSleptSleepsSleeping
SlideSlidSlidSlidesSliding
SlingSlungSlungSlingsSlinging
SlinkSlunkSlunkSlinksSlinking
SlitSlitSlitSlitsSlitting
SmellSmelt/SmelledSmelt/SmelledSmellsSmelling
SmiteSmoteSmittenSmitesSmiting
SowSowedSown/SowedSowsSowing
SpeakSpokeSpokenSpeaksSpeaking
SpeedSped/SpeededSped/SpeededSpeedsSpeeding
SpellSpelt/SpelledSpelt/SpelledSpellsSpelling
SpendSpentSpentSpendsSpending
SpillSpiltSpiltSpillsSpilling
SpinSpunSpunSpinsSpinning
SpitSpat (US Spit)Spat (US Spit)SpitsSpitting
SplitSplitSplitSplitsSplitting
SpoilSpoiled/SpoiltSpoiled/SpoiltSpoilsSpoiling
SpoonfeedSpoonfedSpoonfedSpoonfeedsSpoonfeeding
SpreadSpreadSpreadSpreadsSpreading
SpringSprang (US Sprung)SprungSpringsSpringing
StandStoodStoodStandsStanding
StaveStove/StavedStove/StavedStavesStaving
StealStoleStolenStealsStealing
StickStuckStuckSticksSticking
StingStungStungStingsStinging
StinkStank/StunkStunkStinksStinking
StrewStrewedStrewed/StrewnStrewsStrewing
StrideStrodeStriddenStridesStriding
StrikeStruckStruck/StrickenStrikesStriking
StringStrungStrungStringsStringing
StriveStrove/StrivedStriven/StrivedStrivesStriving
SunburnSunburned/SunburntSunburned/SunburntSunburnsSunburning
SwearSworeSwornSwearsSwearing
SweepSweptSweptSweepsSweeping
SwellSwelledSwollen/SwelledSwellsSwelling
SwimSwamSwumSwimsSwimming
SwingSwungSwungSwingsSwinging
TakeTookTakenTakesTaking
TeachTaughtTaughtTeachesTeaching
TearToreTornTearsTearing
TellToldToldTellsTelling
ThinkThoughtThoughtThinksThinking
ThriveThrived/ThroveThrived/ThrivenThrivesThriving
ThrowThrewThrownThrowsThrowing
ThrustThrustThrustThrustsThrusting
TreadTrodTroddenTreadsTreading
UnbendUnbentUnbentUnbendsUnbending
UnbindUnboundUnboundUnbindsUnbinding
UnderbidUnderbidUnderbid/UnderbiddenUnderbidsUnderbidding
UndergoUnderwentUndergoneUndergoesUndergoing
UnderlieUnderlayUnderlainUnderlaysUnderlying
UnderstandUnderstoodUnderstoodUnderstandsUnderstanding
UndertakeUndertookUndertakenUndertakesUndertaking
UnderwriteUnderwroteUnderwrittenUnderwritesUnderwriting
UndoUndidUndoneUndoesUndoing
UnwindUnwoundUnwoundUnwindsUnwinding
UpholdUpheldUpheldUpholdsUpholding
UpsetUpsetUpsetUpsetsUpsetting
WakeWoke/WakedWoken/WakedWakesWaking
WaylayWaylaidWaylaidWaylaysWaylaying
WearWoreWornWearsWearing
WeaveWoveWovenWeavesWeaving
WedWedded/WedWedded/WedWedsWedding
WeepWeptWeptWeepsWeeping
WetWetted/WetWetted/WetWetsWetting
WinWonWonWinsWinning
WindWoundWoundWindsWinding
WithdrawWithdrewWithdrawnWithdrawsWithdrawing
WithholdWithheldWithheldWithholdsWithholding
WithstandWithstoodWithstoodWithstandsWithstanding
WorkWroughtWroughtWorksWorking
WringWrungWrungWringsWringing
WriteWroteWrittenWritesWriting

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